Gear inspection: Methods and aspects

Improving gear inspection methods has been top priority of the industry for quite sometime. Gears are a vital component in smoothly running manufacturing sector as well as everyday life. A faulty gear could affect you in more ways than just creating noise. CalibroMeasure works to bring efficiency and quality to gear inspection by automating the gear inspection process. To know more about how you could inspect multiple gears on multiple parameters using a single CalibroMeasure machine, see our latest products.

In this blog, we make an effort to understand various aspects of gear inspection

Aspects of gear inspection

Gear size

Measuring the size of the gear helps provide the correct backlash when the gear is mounted alongside its mating gear. Gear size is measured using pins or balls along with a micrometer. Pin measurement remains the more trusted gear inspection equipment for measuring gear size. Gears of larger diameter are measured using gear tooth calipers.

Runout inspection

Runout is the maximum variation of distance between a revolving surface and a datum surface. Measuring the runout helps bring about correct backlash and minimum variation of rotary motion. This part of inspection can be automated on modern CNC gear measuring machines. MeasureMate by CalibroMeasure is designed to do exactly that, improving traceability of inspection data and accuracy of inspection for the gear.

Composite inspection

In composite inspection, the master gear and work gear are rolled tightly together. The master gear is spring-loaded and thus, backlash is not provided. This gear inspection method is used to check tooth-to-tooth rolling action and detect nicks. It is also useful in detecting errors in individual teeth.

Profile inspection

Profile means the shape of gear-tooth curve. The part of the gear tooth that is in mesh with other gear when rolling is called functional or operating portion of the profile. Here, advanced gear inspection equipment first builds a reference profile of the gear to compare with the product’s actual profile. A graphical recording of this profile is then produced. Unmodified profile will be seen as a straight line on the chart. An incorrect profile will cause non-uniformity in rolling action of the gear. This will further lead to noise problems, and in extreme cases, complete failure of the gear.

Helix inspection

Helix inspection entails measuring variation in alignment. Here, the measuring probe is aligned on the test gear at pitch circle diameter. Next, the gear inspection machine traces and graphically records the ‘lead’. Helix inspection determines the correct face contact between mating gears. Incorrect helix leads to loading and noise.

Pitch inspection

The theoretical position of each tooth around the circumference of the gear is known as spacing. The difference between this theoretical position and actual position of the tooth in the gear is called pitch deviation. Pitch inspection can be conducted using a single or a double probe measuring device. Single probe measuring is more accurate and more popular gear inspection method among the two as double probe requires further mathematical corrections to arrive at the correct figure.

Single flank inspection

Here, test gear is given backlash and rolled tightly at its design center distance with a master gear. This gear inspection method is quite close to the way the gear is actually operated. In single flank inspection, encoders are placed on two axis of rotation either as fixed or portable unit. these encoders electronically record the data. Rotational data from each encoder is compared to calculate a phase differential. This data will indicate errors of rotational motion.


Owing to these multiple aspects, gear inspection tends to be a labour-intensive process. However, the availability of machines that could inspect multiple aspects of a gear, and do do for multiple gears could bring more reliability and efficiency to gear inspection process. CalibroMeasure has proven expertise in designing high-capability gear inspection machines that could automate gear inspection. To explore how we could help you successfully automate the process, get in touch with us at: or give us a call at +918975767905/+919822032062

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About Us

CalibroMeasure Equipments P. Ltd. with its highly experienced team designs & manufactures automated dimensional inspection solutions for precision gears & transmission shafts for final as well as in process inspection.


Addrees: G-39/7/2, MIDC, Waluj Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India


Phone: +918975767905, +919822032062